The nine main characteristics of science are the following: Objectivity, verifiable, ethical neutrality, systematic exploration, reliability, precision, abstraction and predictability.
Scientific knowledge is objective. Simple objectivity means the ability to see and accept facts as they are, not as one might wish they were. To be objective, one has to protect oneself against one’s own prejudices, beliefs, desires, values and preferences. Objectivity requires that one should set aside all kinds of subjective considerations and prejudices.
Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses: eye, ear, nose, tongue and touch. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete objective observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and verify the observation to verify its accuracy.
Is there a god? Is the Varna system ethical or the questions related to the existence of the soul, heaven or hell are not scientific questions because they can not be treated objectively? The evidence regarding its existence can not be gathered through our senses. Science has no answers for everything. Deal only with those questions about which verifiable evidence can be found.
3. Ethical neutrality
Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge will be used, is determined by the values of society. Knowledge can be used for different uses. Knowledge about atomic energy can be used to cure diseases or to wage an atomic war.
Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist does not have values. Here it only means that you should not allow your values to distort the design and conduct of your research. Therefore, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free.
4. Systematic exploration
A scientific investigation adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organized plan or a research design to collect and analyze data about the problem under study. In general, this plan includes some scientific steps: formulation of hypotheses, compilation of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and generalization and scientific prediction.
5. Reliable or reliable
Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is replicable in the indicated circumstances in any place and at any time. The conclusions based on casual memories are not very reliable.
Scientific knowledge is precise. It is not vague as some literary writings. Tennyson wrote: “Every moment a man dies; Every moment that one is born, it is good literature but not science. To be a good science, it should be written as: “In India, according to the 2001 census, every tenth, on average, a man dies; every fourth second, on average, a baby is born «. Accuracy requires giving the exact number or measure. Instead of saying “most people are against marriages for love,” says a scientific researcher, “ninety percent of people are against marriages for love.”
Scientific knowledge is precise. A doctor, like a common man, will not say that the patient has a mild temperature or that he has a very high temperature, but after measuring with the help of the thermometer, he will declare that the patient has a temperature of 101.2 F.
Precision simply means truth or correction of a statement or description of things with exact words as they are without jumping to unjustified conclusions.
Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract. He is not interested in giving a realistic image.
Scientists not only describe the phenomena that are studied, but also try to explain and predict. It is typical of the social sciences that have a much lower predictability compared to the natural sciences. The most obvious reasons are the complexity of the subject and the insufficiency in the control, etc.